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[Lovely]boy^_^/English Grammer/Reported Speech



1. Reported Speech


1.1. Unit44. Reported speech(1) (He said that...)

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 A. You want to tell somebody else what Tom said. There are two ways of doing this :
    1. You can repeat Tom's words (direct speech)
       ex) Tom said, "I'm feeling sick."
    2. Or you can use reported speech
       ex) Tom said that he was feeling sick.

~cpp 
 B. When we use reported speech, the main verb of the sentence is usually past. The rest of the sentence is usually past, too :
    ex) I told her that I didn't have any money.

    We can leave out that
    ex) I told her I didn't have any money.

~cpp 
 C. The simple past can usually stay the same in reported speech, or you can change it to the past perfect.
    ex) Tom said he woke up feeling sick, so he stayed in bed. or
        Tom said he had woken up feeling sickm so he stayed in bed.

1.2. Unit45. Reported speech(2)

~cpp 
 A. It is not always necessary yo change the verb when you use reported speech. If you report something and it is still true, you do not need to change the verb.
    ex) direct   : Tom said, "New York is more exciting than London."
        reported : Tom said that New York is more exciting than London. (New York is stlll more exciting. The situation hasn't changed.)

    Is is also correct to change the verb into the past.(--;)
    ex) Tom said that New York was more exciting than London.

    But you must use a past form when there is a difference between what was said and what is really true.(--; 결국은 과거 쓰란 얘기자나)
    ex) You met Kelly a few days ago. She said, "Jim is sick."
        
        Later that day you see Jim. He is looking fine and carrying a tennis racquet. You say :
        "I didn't expect to see you, Jim. Kelly said you were sick." (not "Kelly said you are sick," because obviously he is not sick)

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 B. Say and tell
    Use tell when you say who you are talking to ( Tell Somebody(O) )
    ex) Kelly told me that you were sick. ( not Kelly said me )

    Otherwise use say ( Say somebody(X) )
    ex) Kelly said that you were sick.(not Kelly told that ...)

    But you can say something to somebody.
    ex) Ann said good-bye to me and left.(not Ann said me good-bye)

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 C. Tell/ask somebody to do something.
    We also use the infinitive(to do/ to stay, etc...) in reported speech, especially with tell and ask(for orders and requests)
  
    ex1) direct   : "Stay in bed for a few days," the doctor said to me.
         reported : The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days.

    ex2) direct   : "Please don't tell anybody what happened," Ann said to me.
         reported : Ann asked me not to tell anybody what happened.

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