[Lovely]boy^_^/English Grammer/Present And Past

1. Unit 1. Present Continuous (I am doing) 현재 진행형

 A. Am/is/are + ~ing : Present Continuous
    ex) Ann is in her car. She is on her way to work. she is driving to work.
    This means) She is driving now, at the time of speaking. The action is not finished.

 * 우리말로 하자면 현재 진행형. 말하는 시점에서 그 일이 진행되고 있음. 아직 끝나지 않음

 B. I am doing something = I'm in the middle of doing something; I've started doing it and I haven't finished yet. 
    Often the action is happening at the time of speaking.
    ex) Let's go out now. It isn't raining anymore.

    But the action is not necessarily happening at the time of speaking.
    ex) I'm reading an interesting book at the moment. I'll lend it to you when I've finished it.
    This means) Tom is not reading the book at the time of speaking. 
                He means that he has started it but has not finished it yet. He is in the middle of reading it.

 * 꼭 말하는 시점에서 그 일이 진행되고 있지 않더라도 요즘 하고 있는 일 같은거 말할때 쓰는것 같음.

 C. We use the present continuous when we talk about things happening in a period around now. (today / this week / tonight, etc..)
    ex) "Is Sarah working this week?"

    We use the present contunuous when we talk about changes happening now or around now.
    ex) The population of the world is rising very fast.
 * 꼭 그때가 아니더라도 그 때 근처면 진행형 씀. 또는 그 떄 근처에 뭔가 변할때도 진행형 씀  

2. Unit 2. Simple Present (I do) (단순 현재-- 뭔가 표현할 말이 떠오르질 않네요.)

 A. ex) Alex is a bus driver, but now he is in bed asleep. 
    This Means) He is not driving a bus. but He drives a bus.

 B. We use the simple present to talk about things in general. We use it to say that something happens all the time 
    or repeateldy or that something is true in general. It is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking
    (일반적이고 반복적으로 일어나는 일을 표현할때 단순 과거를 쓴다. 말하는 시점에서 일어나는지 안일어나는지는 중요하지 않음)

 C. We use do/does to make questions and negative sentences.( 의문문이나 부정문 만들떄 do/does를 쓴다 )
    ex) What does thie word mean?
    In the following examples do is also the main verb( do가 메인 동사로 쓰일때도 있다. )
    ex) What do you do?

 D. We use the simple present when we say how often we do things ( 빈도를 나타내는 문장을 만들때는 단순 현재를 쓴다. )
    ex) In the summer Hohn usually plays tennis once or twice a week.
    Note the position of always/never/usually, etc... (before the main verb, after be verb) ( 위치 주의 )
    ex) I never drink coffee at night.
    For word order, see Unit 107

3. Unit 3. Present Continuous and Simple Present (1) (I am doing and I do) (1,2장 정리&확장)

 A. Present Continuous( I am doing )
    We use the present continuous for something that is happening at or around the time of speaking. 
    The action is not finished. sometimes, Use the Present continuous for temporary situations.
    ex) When temporary situations : I'm living with some friends until I find an apartment.
                  I am doing
    past              now              future
    Simple Present( I do )
    We use the simple present for things in general or things that happen repeatedly. 
    Sometimes, Use the simple present for permanent situations.
    ex) When Permanent situations : My parents live in Boston. They have lived there all their lives.
    <--------------- I do ------------------>
    past              now              future

 B. I always do and I'm always doing
    I always do simething = I do it every time.
    I'm always doing something = It does not mean that I do things every time. 
    It means that I do things too often, or more often than normal. 
    (결국 화자가 생각하기에 보통보다 좀 자주 일어나면 be always doing 을 쓴다는 말이다.)

4. Unit 4. Present Continuous and Simple Present (2) (I am doing and I do) (1,2장 정리&확장)

 A. We can use continuous tenses only for actions and happenings. Some verbs are not action verbs. 
    You cannot say "I am knowing" or "They are liking" you can only say I know, I like.
    (모든 동사에 진행형을 쓸수 있는건 아니다 라는 말 같다)
    * 진행형 쓸수 없는 동사들
    like love hate want need prefer know realize sppose mean 
    understand believe remember belong contain consist depend seem 
    ex) Do you understand what I mean?

    When think means "believe" do not use the continuous  (think가 believe의 의미로 쓰일때는 진행형 불가)
    ex) What do you think ( = believe ) will happen? (not What are you thinking?)
        I'm thinking ( = considering) of quitting my job.

    When have means "possess" do not use the continuous (have가 가진다의 의미로 쓰일떄 역시 진행형 불가)
    ex) We have a nice room in the hotel.
        We're having a great time.

 B. See  hear  smell  taste 
    We normally use the simple present(not continuous) with these verbs.(우리말로 지각동사에는 단순현재)
    ex) This room smells, Let's open a window.

    can + see/hear/smell/taste
    ex) Can you hear something?

    You can say I'm seeing when the meaning is "having a meeting with" (Especially in the future)
    ex) I'm seeing the manager tomorrow morning. (누군가와 만남을 가진다라는 표현을 쓸때는 I'm seeing)

 C. He is selfish and He is being selfish
    He's being = He's behaving / He's acting
    ex) I can't understand why he's being so selfish. He isn't usually like that.
    ex) He never thinks about other people. He is very selfish.

    We use am/is/are being to say how somebody is behaving. It is not usually possible in other sentences.

 D. Look and Feel (진행형, 현재형 다 가능)
    예외) I usually feel tired in the morning.(not I'm usually feeling)

5. Unit 5. Simple Past (I did) (단순 과거)

 A. He ''started'' composing at the age of five and ''wrote'' more than 600 pieces of music.
    started, wrote are simple past.

 B. Very often the simple past ends in -ed (꽤 자주 -ed로 끝난단 말입니다.)
    ex) She ''passed'' her exam because she ''studied'' very hard.
    But many verbs are irregular.(안 그런것도 많단 말입니다.)

 C. In questions and negatives we use did/didn't + base form(의문문이나 부정문 만들때는 did/didn't + 원형이랩니다.)
    ex) A : ''Did'' you ''go'' out last night?
        B : Yes, I ''went'' to the movies, but I ''didn't enjoy '' the film much.
    Be careful when do is the main verb in the sentence.(do가 주동사일때 주의하래요)
    ex) I didn't do anything.

 D. The past of be is was/were.(be동사의 과거는 was/were랍니다.)
    am,is -> was, are -> were

    Note that we do not use did in negatives and questions with was/were.(부정문이랑 의문문에선 did를 be동사와 같이 안쓴답니다.)
    이건 무슨 말인지 잘 모르겠당 .. 쩝;

6. Unit 6. Past Continuous (I was doing) (과거 진행형)

 A. Yesterdat Karen and Jim played tennis. They began at 10:00 and finished at 11:30.
    So at 10:30 they were playing tennis.

    They were playing = they were in the middle of playing. They had not finished playing.

    was/were + ing : past continuous.

 B. We use the past continuous to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time.
    The action or situation had already started before this time but had not finished.

 C. Compare the past continuous and simple past

    Past Continuous(in the middle of an action)
    ex) I was walking home when I met Dave. ( = in the middle of walking home)    
    Simple past(complete action)
    ex) I walked home after the party last night. ( = all the way, completely)

 D. We often use the simple past and the past continuous together to say that something happened in the middle of something else.
    (둘이 같이 쓸때도 있다네요. 왜 이랬다 저랬다지;; 미친 영어)
    ex) Matt burned his hand while he was cooking dinner.

    But we use the simple past to say that one thing happened after another.(뭔가가 일어난 뒤에는 단순과거만 쓰래요.)
    ex) I was walking downtown when I saw Dave. So I stopped and we talked for a while.

    Compare :
    ex) When Beth arrived, we were having dinner.(= We had already started dinner.)
    ex) When Beth arrived, we had dinner.( = Beth arrived and then we had dinner.)

 E. Some verbs (know,want...) are not normally used in the continuous. (일부 동사는 진행형 안쓴댑니다.)
    ex) We were good friends. We knew each other well.(not We were knowing)

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